Oliver Peoples frames now in stock

 

 

Oliver Peoples is the iconic brand of classic eyewear. The styles are timeless, with beautifully subtle colouring and design. From the immediately recognisable Gregory Peck  model with flip up sun clip, to the more understated Riley, we have a full range of the collection to view now in store.


Facts about Glaucoma

Facts About Glaucoma

This information was developed to help patients and their families search for general information about glaucoma. An eye care professional who has examined the patient’s eyes and is familiar with his or her medical history is the best person to answer specific questions.

Glaucoma Defined

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of diseases that damage the eye’s optic nerve and can result in vision loss and blindness. However, with early detection and treatment, you can often protect your eyes against serious damage.

The optic nerve

The optic nerve
The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibres. It connects the retina to the brain. (See diagram above.) The retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. A healthy optic nerve is necessary for good vision.

How does the optic nerve get damaged by open-angle glaucoma?

Several large studies have shown that eye pressure is a major risk factor for optic nerve damage. At the front of the eye is a space called the anterior chamber. A clear fluid flows continuously in and out of the chamber and nourishes nearby tissues. The fluid leaves the chamber at the open angle where the cornea and iris meet. (See diagram below.) When the fluid reaches the angle, it flows through a spongy meshwork, like a drain, and leaves the eye.

In open-angle glaucoma, even though the drainage angle is “open”, the fluid passes too slowly through the meshwork drain. Since the fluid builds up, the pressure inside the eye rises to a level that may damage the optic nerve. When the optic nerve is damaged from increased pressure, open-angle glaucoma and vision loss may result. That’s why controlling pressure inside the eye is important.

Another risk factor for optic nerve damage relates to blood pressure. Thus, it is important to also make sure that your blood pressure is at a proper level for your body by working with your medical doctor.

Fluid Pathway
Fluid pathway is shown in teal.

Can I develop glaucoma if I have increased eye pressure?

Not necessarily. Not every person with increased eye pressure will develop glaucoma. Some people can tolerate higher levels of eye pressure better than others. Also, a certain level of eye pressure may be high for one person but normal for another.

Whether you develop glaucoma depends on the level of pressure your optic nerve can tolerate without being damaged. This level is different for each person. That’s why a detailed eye exam is very important. It can help your optometrist determine what level of eye pressure is normal for you.

Can I develop glaucoma without an increase in my eye pressure?

Yes. Glaucoma can develop without increased eye pressure. This form of glaucoma is called low-tension or normal-tension glaucoma. It is a type of open-angle glaucoma.

Who is at risk for open-angle glaucoma?

Anyone can develop glaucoma. Some people, listed below,  are at higher risk than others:

  • Raised intraocular pressure.
  • Myopia.
  • Diabetes.
  • Positive family history: incidence increases x 2-4 for those with an affected sibling.
  • Ethnicity: some ethnic groups have increased incidence of glaucoma. People of East Asian and Inuit ethnicity have an increased risk of closed angle glaucoma but a low incidence of open angle glaucoma. People of African descent are three times more likely to develop open-angle glaucoma.
  • Gender: women are three times more likely than men to develop angle-closure glaucoma due to their shallow anterior chambers.
  • Prolonged use of steroids.
  • Conditions which severely restrict blood flow to the eye – eg, diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion.
  • Eye trauma.
  • Uveitis.
  • Systemic hypertension.

A comprehensive eye exam can reveal more risk factors, such as high eye pressure and abnormal optic nerve anatomy. Anyone suspected of having glaucoma, following an eye examination, is referred to an eye specialist or ophthalmologist who is then able to assess the patient more thoroughly. In some people with certain combinations of these high-risk factors, medicines in the form of eye drops reduce the risk of developing glaucoma by about half.

Glaucoma Symptoms

At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. It causes no pain. Vision stays normal. Glaucoma can develop in one or both eyes.

Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral (side) vision. As glaucoma remains untreated, people may miss objects to the side and out of the corner of their eye. They seem to be looking through a tunnel. Over time, straight-ahead (central) vision may decrease until no vision remains.

Normal Vision
Normal Vision.

Glaucoma Vision
The same scene as viewed by a person with glaucoma.

Glaucoma Detected

How is glaucoma detected?

Glaucoma is detected through a comprehensive eye exam that includes the following:

Visual acuity test. This eye test chart measures how well you see at various distances.

Visual field test. This test measures your central and peripheral (side vision). It helps the optometrist determine if you have lost peripheral vision, a sign of glaucoma.

Tonometry is the measurement of pressure inside the eye by using an instrument called a tonometer. The instrument emits a harmless and painless ‘puff’ of air on to the eye, allowing the pressure to be noted.

Can glaucoma be cured?

No. There is no cure for glaucoma. Vision lost from the disease cannot be restored, but it can be managed and further visual loss can be prevented.

Glaucoma Treatments

Immediate treatment for early-stage, open-angle glaucoma can delay progression of the disease. That’s why early diagnosis is very important.

Glaucoma treatments include medicines, laser trabeculoplasty, laser iridotomy, cyclodiode laser treatment or a combination of any of these. While these treatments may save remaining vision, they do not improve sight already lost from glaucoma.

Medicines. Medicines in the form of eye drops, are the most common early treatment for glaucoma. Taken regularly, these eye drops lower eye pressure. Some medicines cause the eye to make less fluid. Others lower pressure by helping fluid drain from the eye.

Glaucoma medicines need to be taken regularly as directed by your ophthalmologist. Most people have no problems. However, some medicines can cause headaches or other side effects. For example, drops may cause stinging, burning, and redness in the eyes.

Any side effects from taking the medication, should be reported to your ophthalmologist.

Because glaucoma often has no symptoms, people may be tempted to stop taking or may forget to take their medicine. You need to use the drops or pills as long as they help control your eye pressure. Regular use is very important.

Tonometer that measures pressure.
A tonometer measures pressure inside the eye to detect glaucoma.

Laser trabeculoplasty: a laser is used to open up the drainage tubes within the eye, which allows more fluid to drain out of the eye and reduces the pressure inside it.

Laser iridotomy: a laser is used to create holes in the iris (coloured part of the eye) to allow fluid to drain from the eye.

Cyclodiode laser treatment: a laser is used to destroy some of the tissue in the eye that produces aqueous humour (the liquid inside the eye), which can reduce pressure in the eye.

Surgery

Surgery may be recommended as an alternative to laser treatment in some cases. Types of surgery include:

trabeculectomy – the most common type of operation, it involves removing part of the eye drainage tubes to allow fluid to drain more easily.

trabeculotomy – similar to trabeculectomy, but an electric current is used to remove a small part of the eye drainage tubes.

viscocanalostomy – an operation to remove part of the sclera ( the white of the eyeball), so fluid can drain from the eye more easily.

 

 

What are some other forms of glaucoma and how are they treated?

Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form. Some people have other types of the disease.

In low-tension or normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve damage and narrowed side vision occur in people with normal eye pressure. Lowering eye pressure at least 30 percent through medicines slows the disease in some people. Glaucoma may worsen in others despite low pressures.

A comprehensive medical history is important to identify other potential risk factors, such as low blood pressure, that contribute to low-tension glaucoma. If no risk factors are identified, the treatment options for low-tension glaucoma are the same as for open-angle glaucoma.

In angle-closure glaucoma, the fluid at the front of the eye cannot drain through the angle and leave the eye. The angle gets blocked by part of the iris. People with this type of glaucoma may have a sudden increase in eye pressure. Symptoms include severe pain and nausea, as well as redness of the eye and blurred vision. If you have these symptoms, you need to seek treatment immediately. This is a medical emergency. If your doctor or optometrist is unavailable, go to the nearest hospital or clinic. Without treatment to restore the flow of fluid, the eye can become blind. Usually, prompt laser surgery and medicines can clear the blockage, lower eye pressure, and protect vision.

In congenital glaucoma, children are born with a defect in the angle of the eye that slows the normal drainage of fluid. These children usually have obvious symptoms, such as cloudy eyes, sensitivity to light, and excessive tearing. Conventional surgery typically is the suggested treatment, because medicines are not effective and can cause more serious side effects in infants and be difficult to administer. Surgery is safe and effective. If surgery is done promptly, these children usually have an excellent chance of having good vision.

Conventional surgery.
Conventional surgery makes a new opening for the fluid to leave the eye.

Secondary glaucomas can develop as complications of other medical conditions. For example, a severe form of glaucoma is called neovascular glaucoma, and can be a result from poorly controlled diabetes or high blood pressure. Other types of glaucoma sometimes occur with cataract, certain eye tumours, or when the eye is inflamed or irritated by a condition called uveitis. Sometimes glaucoma develops after other eye surgeries or serious eye injuries. Steroid drugs used to treat eye inflammations and other diseases can trigger glaucoma in some people. There are two eye conditions known to cause secondary forms of glaucoma.

Pigmentary glaucoma occurs when pigment from the iris sheds off and blocks the meshwork, slowing fluid drainage.

Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma occurs when extra material is produced and shed off internal eye structures and blocks the meshwork, again slowing fluid drainage.

Depending on the cause of these secondary glaucomas, treatment may include medicines, laser surgery, or conventional surgery.

 

Loss of Vision

If you have lost some sight from glaucoma, ask your eye care professional about low vision services and devices that may help you make the most of your remaining vision.

 


Innovative new sunglasses from Silhouette

‘Arthur Arbesser for Silhouette’ is a collection of four brightly coloured, ultra-stylish sunglasses.

Silhouette is committed to supporting young designers and unearthing great design talent. Each year, Silhouette invites an up-and-coming designer to design a range of sunglasses using Silhouette’s iconic frame, the TMA, as their template. This year is the turn of internationally acclaimed fashion designer, Arthur Arbesser.

Internationally known as one of the most promising new designers in Milan, Arthur was born and raised in Vienna. He studied at Central St. Martins in London and worked for Armani for 7 years before launching his own label in 2013 at Milan’s fashion week.

Call in to Unia Opticians, on Strutton Ground, to try the these amazingly lightweight, beautiful styles, as long as stocks last!

As seen in Grazia magazine

 


New frames ranges now in.

We are really excited about the new Gucci collection we have just received in store. The frames have some classic vintage looks with some vibrant colours and beautiful styling.

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We’ve even been tempted by the latest Gucci sunglasses, and have a small, select range.

Also new in, is the latest Stella McCartney collection. The frames are made from a Bio-based material, and have unusual colours and fun styling.

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Myopia cell discovery

Myopia cell discovered in retina: Dysfunction of cell may be linked to amount of time a child spends indoors

Date:
February 6, 2017
Source:
Northwestern University
Summary:
Scientists have discovered a cell in the retina that may cause myopia when it dysfunctions. The dysfunction may be linked to the amount of time a child spends indoors and away from natural light. This discovery could lead to a new therapeutic target to control myopia. More than a billion people in the world have myopia, whose incidence is rising and is linked to how much time people spend indoors as children.
FULL STORY

 Cells in the eye could be over stimulated by indoor light spectrum, causing damage, say researchers.
 
                                                             
             The light rays are not focused on the retina in a myopic eye. The focal point falls in front of the
              retina.
 

Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered a cell in the retina that may cause myopia when it dysfunctions. The dysfunction may be linked to the amount of time a child spends indoors and away from natural light.

“This discovery could lead to a new therapeutic target to control myopia,” said Greg Schwartz, lead investigator and assistant professor of ophthalmology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

More than a billion people in the world have myopia, whose incidence is rising and is linked to how much time people spend indoors as children.

The newly discovered retinal cell — which is highly sensitive to light — controls how the eye grows and develops. If the cell instructs the eye to grow too long, images fail to be focused on the retina, causing nearsighted vision and a lifetime of corrective glasses or contact lenses.

“The eye needs to stop growing at precisely the right time during childhood,” Schwartz said.

It has long been long known the retina contains a signal to focus the image in the eye, and this signal is important for properly regulating eye growth during childhood.

“But for years no one knew what cell carried the signal,” Schwartz said. “We potentially found the key missing link, which is the cell that actually does that task and the neural circuit that enables this important visual function.”

Schwartz named the cell, “ON Delayed,” in reference to its slow responses to lights becoming brighter. The cell was unique among many other cell types tested in its exquisite sensitivity to whether an image was in focus.

He described the neural circuit as the diagram that reveals how this cell is wired to other cells in the retina to acquire this unique sensitivity.

How too much time indoors may trigger myopia

The indoor light spectrum has high red/green contrast, which activates these clusters of photoreceptors in the human eye, creating the equivalent of an artificial contrast image on the retina. It’s likely the human version of the ON Delayed retinal ganglion cell would be overstimulated by such patterns, causing aberrant over-growth of the eye, leading to myopia, Schwartz said.

 

To conduct the study, Schwartz and co-author Adam Mani, a postdoctoral fellow in ophthalmology at Feinberg, used microscopic glass electrodes to record electrical signals from cells in a mouse retina while presenting patterns of light on a digital projector.

The next goal is to find a gene specific to this cell. Then scientists can turn its activity up or down in a genetic mouse model to try to induce or cure myopia.

The study is part of Schwartz’s larger body of research to reverse engineer the retina by identifying new retinal cell types in mice. The retina has about 50 types of retinal ganglion cells, which together convey all the information we use to perceive the visual world. Each of these cells provides different visual information — such as colour or motion — about any point in space.

Schwartz, who is funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), wants to identify the new cells by their specific function, analyze their genetic signatures and understand how the cells are interconnected within the retina and to their targets in the brain. His research could lead to gene therapy to treat blindness and to improve the function of artificial retinal prosthetics.

 


Story Source:

Materials provided by Northwestern University. Original written by Marla Paul. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Adam Mani, Gregory W. Schwartz. Circuit Mechanisms of a Retinal Ganglion Cell with Stimulus-Dependent Response Latency and Activation Beyond Its Dendrites. Current Biology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.033

 


After blindness, the adult brain can learn to see again

More than 40 million people worldwide are blind, and many of them reach this condition after many years of slow and progressive retinal degeneration. The development of sophisticated prostheses or new light-responsive elements, aiming to replace the disrupted retinal function and to feed restored visual signals to the brain, has provided new hope. However, very little is known about whether the brain of blind people retains residual capacity to process restored or artificial visual inputs. A new study published in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Elisa Castaldi and Maria Concetta Morrone from the University of Pisa, Italy, and colleagues investigates the brain’s capability to process visual information after many years of total blindness, by studying patients affected by Retinitis Pigmentosa, a hereditary illness of the retina that gradually leads to complete blindness.

Fundus of the patient’s eye implanted with Argus II Retinal 98 Prosthesis, taken soon after the surgery Image Credit: Castaldi E, Cicchini GM, Cinelli L, Biagi L, Rizzo S, Morrone MC (2016)

 

The perceptual and brain responses of a group of patients were assessed before and after the implantation of a prosthetic implant that senses visual signals and transmits them to the brain by stimulating axons of retinal ganglion cells. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the researchers found that patients learned to recognize unusual visual stimuli, such as flashes of light, and that this ability correlated with increased brain activity. However, this change in brain activity, observed at both the thalamic and cortical level, took extensive training over a long period of time to become established: the more the patient practiced, the more their brain responded to visual stimuli, and the better they perceived the visual stimuli using the implant. In other words, the brain needs to learn to see again.

The results are important as they show that after the implantation of a prosthetic device the brain undergoes plastic changes to re-learn how to make use of the new artificial and probably aberrant visual signals. They demonstrate a residual plasticity of the sensory circuitry of the adult brain after many years of deprivation, which can be exploited in the development of new prosthetic implants.

Article: Visual BOLD Response in Late Blind Subjects with Argus II Retinal Prosthesis, Castaldi E, Cicchini GM, Cinelli L, Biagi L, Rizzo S, Morrone MC, PLOS Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002569,


Level of education is more decisive than intelligence for the development of short-sightedness

Environmental factors such as education and leisure activities have a greater influence on the development of short-sightedness or myopia than the ability to think logically and solve problems. Myopia and the so-called “fluid intelligence” of a person are certainly related, but only indirectly through the duration of education. This is the conclusion of researchers at the Mainz University Medical Center involved in the study “Myopia and Cognitive Performance: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.” The results of the study appeared in the October issue of the specialist journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science.

Myopia, also known as short-sightedness or near-sightedness, is the most common disorder affecting the eyesight and the condition is on the increase. Severe short-sightedness is one of the main causes of impaired vision. In addition, it is closely associated with an increased risk of secondary complications such as retinal detachmentmacular degeneration, premature cataracts, and glaucoma. Because myopia can be easily treated in the early stages, although it cannot be fully cured, insight into the causes of the disease is of central importance.

“We know from earlier studies that a higher level of education frequently goes hand-in-hand with the development of short-sightedness,” said Professor Norbert Pfeiffer, Director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). Together with Professor Alireza Mirshahi, Director of the Bonn Dardenne Eye Clinic, and Professor Josef Unterrainer, who heads the Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology at the University of Freiburg, Pfeiffer was in charge of the study “Myopia and Cognitive Performance: Results From the Gutenberg Health Study,” which was the subject of the recent publication. The core question being considered is whether short-sighted people are not only better educated but also more intelligent.

Based on their findings, the research team lead by Pfeiffer, Mirshahi, and Unterrainer have come to the following conclusions: Considered in isolation, cognitive ability and, thus, intelligence apparently plays a significant role in the development of short-sightedness. But when the researchers took into account already identified potential influencing factors, they discovered that the number of years over which an individual received education exhibited a more direct and closer relationship with short-sightedness than cognitive ability. This means that it is only through educational attainments that cognitive ability is linked to myopia. In other words, the level of education rather than intelligence is more decisive for development of short-sightedness. In the case of two equally intelligent people, it is thus most probably the one who attended school for longer and has the better educational qualifications who will become myopic and experience more defective vision.

For their study, the research team analyzed data collected within the framework of the Gutenberg Health Study conducted by the Mainz University Medical Center. This is one of the largest population-based research studies in the world. The sub-cohort consisted of some 4,000 subjects aged 40 to 79 years. The researchers used the Tower of London (TOL) test to measure cognitive functioning. The 20-minute test assesses cognitive ability by mentally planning ahead and problem solving. In order to diagnose myopia, the researchers examined the refractive power of the eyes of subjects, thus determining how much their eyes had to adjust to produce a sharp image. Short-sightedness is characterized by negative diopter values. In the study, myopia was diagnosed when the identified diopter value was less than or equal to 0.5.


Eye health: Our top tips for healthy eyes

Eye health

Our top tips for healthy eyes

  • Have regular check-ups

Have your eyes tested every two years even if you think your vision is fine. An eye test can spot some eye conditions and other illnesses not related to sight. Regular check-ups are vital even if you have no symptoms.

  • Find out your family eye health history

Talk to your relatives about your family eye health history. Some eye conditions have genetic links which increase your risk of developing them. Share this information with your optometrist or eye health professional.

  • Take care of your contact lenses

If you wear contact lenses make sure you look after them properly. Thoroughly wash and dry your hands before touching your contact lenses or your eyes. Your lenses and their case should only ever be cleaned with the lens solution recommended by your optometrist. Always follow the instructions given to you by your optometrist or the lens manufacturer.

  • Wear sunglasses

Protect your eyes when it is sunny or when you’re in high glare areas such as near snow or water. The CE or BS EN 1836:2005 marks indicate that sunglasses provide a safe level of protection from the sun’s damaging UVA and UVB rays. Ongoing UV exposure can increase your risk of developing cataracts or macular degeneration.

  • Protect your eyes

Wear safety glasses or protective goggles to protect your eyes from injury if you work with hazardous or airborne materials. This applies to home too if you are doing DIY, gardening or setting off fireworks.

  • Keep fit and healthy

Being fit and well can help your eyes stay healthy. Maintaining a healthy weight and blood pressure may help with eye health. Protect your eyes when playing sports involving flying balls.

  • Eat well

Make sure your diet includes nutrients such as Omega 3 fatty acids, zinc and vitamins C and E. These may help to prevent or delay age-related vision problems such as macular degeneration and cataracts. Recommended foods for general good health include green leafy vegetables, oily fish such as salmon and citrus fruits.

  • Stop smoking

Smoking is harmful to your eyes and can increase the risk of sight loss. Current smokers are 2-4 times more at risk of developing macular degeneration than people who have never smoked.

  • Avoid recreational drugs

There is evidence to suggest that some recreational drugs can cause sight loss – particularly alkyl nitrites, also known as poppers.

 

Facts about sight loss

  • Every 5 seconds someone in the world goes blind
  • Every day 100 people in the UK start to lose their sight
  • Almost 2 million people in the UK are living with significant sight loss. The number is predicted to rise to around 2.3 million by 2020 and almost 4 million by 2050
  • Around 360,000 people in the UK are registered blind or partially sighted
  • An estimated 25,000 children in Britain are blind or partially sighted
  • 86% of people in the UK value their sight above any other sense
  • Sight loss can affect people of any age but the likelihood increases as you get older: One in five people over 70 are living with sight loss
  • Black and Asian people are at greater risk of developing certain conditions which can result in the onset of some of the leading causes of sight loss

 


Retinal Migraine: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

A retinal migraine is one of many types of migraine. A retinal migraine is rare, and it is different from a migraine headache or a migraine with aura. Those conditions usually affect the vision in both eyes. A retinal migraine affects vision in one eye only.

Around 1 in every 200 people who get migraines will have a retinal migraine.

The condition is also sometimes called an ophthalmic migraine, visual migraine, or an ocular migraine, although symptoms for these are slightly different.

A retinal migraine is an eye condition. It can cause temporary blindness or visual problems in one eye. Retinal migraines usually last for up to 1 hour and are followed by the return of normal vision.

Contents of this article:

Causes of a retinal migraine

A retinal migraine is caused by a reduction in blood flow to the eye when blood vessels narrow suddenly. There are several reasons why this might happen.

A retinal migraine starts with visual disturbances in one eye.

 

Factors that might trigger blood vessel narrowing and retinal migraines include:

As the blood vessels relax and blood flow returns to normal, the symptoms usually disappear and vision comes back.

Some people are more at risk of a retinal migraine than others. These people include:

  • People aged 40 years and under
  • Individuals with a family history of migraines
  • People with another condition, such as atherosclerosisepilepsylupus, and sickle cell disease

It affects women more often than men.

Symptoms

Retinal migraines involve repeated attacks of certain visual disturbances. These usually happen before the headache phase of a migraine. The visual disturbances are often collectively referred to as “aura.”

Symptoms occur in one eye. The characteristics of an aura may include:

  • Seeing flashing, sparkling, or twinkling lights
  • A blind spot or partial loss of vision
  • Temporary blindness

The aura may spread gradually over 5 minutes or more and last for 6-60 minutes. Within 60 minutes of visual symptoms, the headache phase of a retinal migraine may begin.

The headache phase of a retinal migraine has symptoms like a migraine without aura. These symptoms include a headache that lasts 4 to 72 hours on one side of the head.

The headache may be:

  • Pulsing or throbbing
  • Moderate to severe in pain intensity
  • Made worse by activities such as walking or climbing stairs

A migraine headache may also cause:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Increased sensitivity to light
  • Increased sensitivity to sound

A migraine with aura is a different condition to a retinal migraine, although some of the symptoms are similar.

Migraines with aura also cause visual disturbances such as flashes of light, blind spots, and other visual changes. However, a retinal migraine differs from a migraine with aura for two main reasons:

  • The visual symptoms only occur in one eye and not both
  • Complete but temporary blindness may occur in one eye only

Diagnosis

There are no diagnostic tests that detect a retinal migraine. A doctor may diagnose a retinal migraine by examining personal and family medical history, asking about symptoms, and conducting an examination.

Other possible causes for the symptoms will be ruled out before a retinal migraine is diagnosed. It is important to investigate and rule out other causes of temporary blindness.

A specialist doctor might need to ensure that the symptoms are not caused by a serious eye disease or stroke.

Some people that have visual disturbances in one eye might have hemianopia. Hemianopia is the loss of vision on the same side in both eyes. This condition often happens in stroke and traumatic brain injuries.

Treatments

The medication that a doctor prescribes to treat retinal migraines may change depending on a person’s age and how frequently they have retinal migraine attacks.

Prescribed medication might include:

NSAIDS such as ibuprofen or aspirin may relieve the pain of the headache.

 

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs), such as aspirinor ibuprofen, to relieve pain and inflammation
  • Anti nausea medications to prevent nausea and vomiting
  • Ergotamines to narrow blood vessels in the brain to relieve a headache
  • Triptans to narrow blood vessels in the brain and reduce swelling
  • Beta-blockersto relax blood vessels in the brain
  • Calciumchannel blockers to prevent blood vessels constricting
  • Antidepressantsto help prevent a migraine
  • Anticonvulsants to help prevent a migraine

There is currently a lack of research into the best way to treat a retinal migraine. However, most treatments focus on pain relief for headaches and reducing exposure to potential retinal migraine triggers.

Complications

There is a small risk with a retinal migraine that the sudden reduction in blood flow to the eye may damage the retina and blood vessels of the eye.

The medications that are used to treat a retinal migraine can sometimes cause other problems.

  • NSAIDs may cause stomach pain, bleeding, ulcers, and other problems
  • Medications can cause overuse headaches if an individual uses them for more than 10 days a month for 3 months
  • Serotoninsyndrome is a rare, life-threatening condition that has an increased risk in people that combine certain antidepressants and triptans

The permanent loss of vision following a retinal migraine is rare.


Researchers find children with ‘wobbly eye’ unable to recognise faces

Researchers in Southampton have discovered children who suffer from eye movement disorder nystagmus – known as ‘wobbly eye’ – struggle to recognise faces but not other objects.

It is hoped the novel finding, which was made following a study led by consultant paediatric ophthalmologist Jay Self and his team at Southampton Children’s Hospital, will lead to the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and better support for patients.

Nystagmus causes the eyes to ‘wobble’ and creates strobe vision, which makes it difficult to see moving objects, recognise familiar faces or perform everyday activities such as playing with toys and friends.

Although the condition, which affects around one in 1,500 people in the UK, can develop in later life, it is more commonly found in babies and young children – known as congenital nystagmus – and can be caused by many different underlying conditions.

The study, carried out by medical student Shinn Tan, in collaboration with the psychology team at the University of Southampton and clinicians in Cardiff and Plymouth, compared how children with and without nystagmus look at faces using an innovative infrared eye-tracking device.

Children were shown two different images on a computer screen at the same time while the Eyelink 1000 Plus analyser used infrared light reflected from the cornea of their eye to measure the time spent looking at each image.

When presented with a black and white checkerboard pattern and a plain grey panel, all children spent longer looking at the distinctive checkerboard and seemed to identify it very quickly – as expected by the clinicians.

However, when shown photos of their own mother’s face and that of another woman, children without nystagmus spent longer looking at their mother and found their face very quickly, while those with the condition looked at both faces for the same length of time and seemed to struggle to identify their own mother’s face.

“Nystagmus is an extremely complicated condition, therefore, testing and diagnosing it has proved very challenging, so we are constantly looking for ways to improve and enhance methods of diagnosis, as well as increase the support available to patients,” explained Mr Self, who is associate professor of ophthalmology at the University of Southampton.

“These results indicate that children with nystagmus may have specific difficulty recognising faces or adopt different ways of looking at faces – something that’s rarely detected by standard eye tests.”

He added: “The findings could provide the basis of a more accurate diagnosis of nystagmus severity and measure of the efficacy of trial treatments, as well as improved social support and understanding for patients.”

The study was funded by the Nystagmus Network.