Presbyopia: Symptoms, causes and treatment

Presbyopia is the normal loss of near focusing ability that occurs with age. Most people begin to notice the effects of presbyopia sometime after age 40, when they start having trouble seeing small print clearly — including text messages on their phone.

You can’t escape presbyopia, even if you’ve never had a vision problem before. Even people who are short sighted will notice that their near vision blurs when they wear their usual spectacles or contact lenses to correct distance vision.

The eye’s lens stiffens with age, so it is less able to focus when you view something up close.

 

Researchers estimate that nearly 2 billion people worldwide have presbyopia.

Though presbyopia is a normal change in our eyes as we age, it often is a significant and emotional event because it’s a sign of ageing that’s impossible to ignore and difficult to hide.

In parts of the world where there is no access to vision care, presbyopia is much more than an inconvenience — it’s a leading cause of vision impairment that reduces people’s quality of life and productivity.

Presbyopia symptoms

When you become presbyopic, you either have to hold your mobile phone and other objects and reading material (books, magazines, menus, labels, etc.) further away from your eyes to see them more clearly.

Unfortunately, when we move things further away from our eyes they get smaller in size, so this is only a temporary and partially successful solution to presbyopia.

If you can still see close objects pretty well, presbyopia can cause headaches, eye strain and visual fatigue that makes reading and other near vision tasks less comfortable and more tiring.

What causes presbyopia?

Presbyopia is an age-related process. It is a gradual thickening and loss of flexibility of the natural lens inside your eye.

These age-related changes occur within the proteins in the lens, making the lens harder and less elastic over time. Age-related changes also take place in the muscle fibres surrounding the lens. With less elasticity, it gets difficult for the eyes to focus on close objects.

Presbyopia treatment

Presbyopia can be treated with spectacles (including reading glasses), contact lenses and vision surgery.

Spectacles

Spectacles with progressive lenses are the most popular solution for presbyopia for most people over age 40. These line-free multifocal lenses restore clear near vision and provide excellent vision at all distances.

Another presbyopia treatment option is spectacles with bifocal lenses, but bifocals provide a more limited range of vision for many people with presbyopia.

It’s also common for people with presbyopia to notice they are becoming more sensitive to light and glare due to ageing changes in their eyes. Photochromic lenses, which darken automatically in sunlight, are a good choice for this reason.

Reading glasses are another choice. Unlike bifocals and progressive lenses, which most people wear all day, reading glasses are worn only when needed to see close objects and small print more clearly.

If you wear contact lenses, your optician, can prescribe reading glasses that you wear while your contact lenses are in. You may purchase reading glasses at a retail shop, or you can get higher-quality versions prescribed by your optician.

Regardless which type of spectacles you choose to correct presbyopia, definitely consider lenses that include anti-reflective coating. Anti-reflective coating eliminates reflections that can be distracting and cause eye strain. It also helps reduce glare and increase visual clarity for night driving.

Contact lenses

People with presbyopia also can opt for multifocal contact lenses, available in gas permeable or soft lens materials.

Another type of contact lens correction for presbyopia is monovision, in which one eye wears a distance prescription, and the other wears a prescription for near vision. The brain learns to favour one eye or the other for different tasks.

While some people are delighted with this solution, others complain of reduced visual acuity and some loss of depth perception. Because the human eye changes as you grow older, your presbyopia glasses or contacts prescription will need to be increased over time as well. You can expect your optician to prescribe a stronger correction for near work as you need it.

Presbyopia surgery

If you don’t want to wear spectacles or contact lenses for presbyopia, a number of surgical options to treat presbyopia are available as well.

One presbyopia correction procedure that’s gaining popularity is implantation of a corneal inlay.

Typically implanted in the cornea of the eye that’s not your dominant eye, a corneal inlay increases depth of focus of the treated eye and reduces the need for reading glasses without significantly affecting the quality of your distance vision.

The first step to see if you are a good patient for presbyopia surgery is to have a comprehensive eye exam and a consultation with a refractive surgeon who specialises in the surgical correction of presbyopia.

Presbyopia is a part of growing older

Presbyopia is a normal part of the ageing process, and we’re all going to have to deal with it sometime after age 40. Whichever option you choose – spectacles, contact lenses or surgery – you’ll be able to easily read messages on your phone or a book to your granddaughter without any trouble.

If you are beginning to notice signs and symptoms of presbyopia, contact us for an eye exam and consultation regarding the best presbyopia treatment options for you.

Source: https://www.allaboutvision.com/en-gb/conditions/presbyopia/


Glaucoma: Symptoms, treatment and prevention

 

Glaucoma is often called the “silent thief of sight,” because most of its types typically cause no pain and produce no symptoms until noticeable vision loss occurs.

For this reason, glaucoma often progresses undetected until the optic nerve already has been irreversibly damaged.

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of related eye disorders that cause damage to the optic nerve that carries information from the eye to the brain.

In most cases, glaucoma is associated with higher-than-normal pressure inside the eye — a condition called ocular hypertension. But it can also occur when intraocular pressure (IOP) is normal. If untreated or uncontrolled, glaucoma first causes peripheral vision loss and eventually can lead to blindness.

Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide (behind cataracts).

Types of glaucoma

The two major categories of glaucoma are open-angle glaucoma and closed angle glaucoma. The “angle” in both cases refers to the drainage angle inside the eye that controls the outflow of the watery fluid (aqueous) which is continually being produced inside the eye.

If the aqueous can access the drainage angle, the glaucoma is known as open angle glaucoma. If the drainage angle is blocked and the aqueous cannot reach it, the glaucoma is known as closed angle glaucoma.

Glaucoma symptoms

Most types of glaucoma typically cause no pain and produce no symptoms until noticeable vision loss occurs, but with acute angle-closure glaucoma, one experiences sudden symptoms like blurry vision, halos around lights, intense eye pain, nausea and vomiting.

If you have these symptoms, see an optician so steps can be taken to prevent permanent vision loss.

Diagnosis, screening and tests for glaucoma

During routine eye exams, a tonometer is used to measure your intraocular pressure, or IOP. Your eye typically is numbed with eye drops, and a small probe gently rests against your eye’s surface. Other tonometers send a puff of air onto your eye’s surface.

An abnormally high IOP reading indicates a problem with the amount of fluid (aqueous humour) in the eye. Either the eye is producing too much fluid, or it’s not draining properly.

Normally, IOP should be below 21 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) — a unit of measurement based on how much force is exerted within a certain defined area.

If your IOP is higher than 30 mmHg, your risk of vision loss from glaucoma is 40 times greater than someone with intraocular pressure of 15 mmHg or lower. This is why glaucoma treatments such as eye drops are designed to keep IOP low.

Other methods of monitoring glaucoma involve the use of sophisticated imaging technology to create baseline images and measurements of the eye’s optic nerve and internal structures.

Then, at specified intervals, additional images and measurements are taken to make sure no changes have occurred that might indicate progressive glaucoma damage.

Glaucoma treatments

Treatment for glaucoma can involve surgery, laser treatment or medication, depending on the severity. Eye drops with medication aimed at lowering IOP are usually tried first to control glaucoma.

Because glaucoma is often painless, people may become careless about strict use of eye drops that can control eye pressure and help to prevent permanent eye damage.

In fact, not complying to prescribed glaucoma medication program one of the major reasons for blindness caused by glaucoma.

If you find that the eye drops you are using for glaucoma are uncomfortable or inconvenient, never discontinue them without first consulting your optician about a possible alternative therapy.

Exercise may cut glaucoma risk

Can you reduce the glaucoma risk? According to a recent European study, exercise lessens the chance that some people will develop glaucoma because it helps improve blood flow in your body and your eyes.

In addition to regular exercise and an active lifestyle, you also can reduce your risk for glaucoma by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating a varied and healthy diet.

Source:

allaboutvision.com/en-gb/conditions/glaucoma/